Confection and Candy



Agar: A powerful binding agent derived from sea vegetables. It produces a thermoreversible.

Agglomerate: A cluster of particles packed together.

Agitate: To move with an irregular, rapid, or violent action, usually in order to induce crystallization of fats or sugar. This is often accomplished through tabling or stirring in a bowl.

Alkalization: The process of adding an alkali to cocoa powder. This is most widely known as dutch processing.

Amino Acids: the building blocks of proteins. Amino Acids are essential components in the Maillard Reaction.

Amorphous: Non-crystalline state

Anhydrous: Free of water.

Aqueous Phase: the portion of an emulsion that is water based. This can be either the dispersed or continues phase of the emulsion.

Artificial Flavor: A flavor which is manufactured from sources that do not occur in nature according a governing groups which over see food production, and create guidelines in a collective bases.

AW: Stands for Active water.

Baume: A scale of measurement of density expressed in degrees. Used usually to describe sugar content.

Bloom(Chocolate): The gray cast, spots, or streaks that appear on poorly handled chocolate.

Bloom(Gelatin): The process of Hydrating Gelatin before use.

Bloom Strength: A measurement of the strength of gelatin that describes the relative strength of the gel it forms.

Boiling Starches: Acid-modified starches used in the production of Starch jellies. Also known as thin boiling starches.

Bound Water: Water that is chemically bound to other substances, such as sugar. Bound water does not contribute to water activity.

Brittles: An amorphous sugar confection flavored through Maillard Browning and are typically made with nuts.

Brix: A scale of measurement of sugar concentration in a Solution. a brix measurement is performed with a refractometer and is expressed in degrees.

Cacao: Botanical name relating to the agriculture of the South American evergreen, Theobroma Cacao, and its products up until fermentation of the cacao bean.

Caramelize: To brown sugar through exposure to heat. Though caramelization creates similar flavors and colors to the Maillard Reaction, they are both distinctly different reactions.

Chocolate Liquor: The paste which is produced when Cacao Beans are ground in to a paste, as well the butter fats are released and melted during this stage of processing.

Coating Chocolate: a chocolate where all or the majority of the cocoa fat is replaced with a room temperature stable fat that requires little to no tempering when used to coat candies.

Cocoa: This is the term which refers to most if not all chocolate products produced after the Cacao ferments.

Cocoa Butter: The fat found in cacao beans

Cold Flow: The tendency for a center to ooze and change shape at room temp.

Colloid: A substance consisting of suspended particles that are too small to be viewed with an ordinary light microscope.

Confit: The French word  for “preserved.” Used to refer to partially candied citrus peels.

Continuous Phase: The phase of an emulsion that contains the droplets of the dispersed phase. The continuous phase can either be fat or water.

Conversion: The break down of Starch, through hydrolysis, into various saccharides during the production of glucose syrup.

Cordials: Chocolates with a liquid centers.

Corn Syrup: Glucose syrup that is converted from cornstarch.

Couverture: A european designation of chocolate containing at leas 32% cocoa butter.

Criollo: The variety of cocoa bean that is generally regarded as being of the highest quality.

Crystalline: Sugar or fat that is not amorphous but has a highly ordered molecular structure.

Crystalize: to transform from he amorphous state to the crystalline state.

DE: Dextrose Equivalence.

Denture: To unfold or uncoil protein molecules as a result of exposure to heat, acid, or mechanical agitation.

Densimeter: An instrument that measures the density of a syrup by floating in the syrup.

Deposit: To place a large quantity of a material to be made into centers into a form or shape where it will set. Artisan confectioners may deposit centers using a piping bag, a fondant funnel, or by spreading into a frame.

Dew Point: The temperature to which air must be chilled in order for humidity to condense in to water droplets.

Dextrose: A monosaccharide; one half of the sucrose molecule.

Dextrose Equivalence: see DE.

Disaccharide: two single sugar molecules chemically bonded together.

Dispersed Phase: The portion of an emulsion that is in droplets.

Dissolved Solids: The total quantity of sugar dissolved in a solution.

Doctor: An ingredient added to sugar to prevent crystallization.

Dragee: A rudimentary panning technique accomplished without a panning machine.

Dry Method: Putting granulated sugar over direct heat without the addition of water to melt and caramelize.

Dutch Processing: A method by which cacao is treated with an alkali.

Emulsify: To convert into a mixture of two incompletely compatible liquids in which one of the liquids, in the form of fine droplets, is dispersed in the other.

Emulsion: A mixture of immiscible ingredients in which droplets of one substance are suspended within the other.

Engross: In panning, to build layers of the sugar or chocolate coating.

Enzyme: A protein that is a catalyst, causing specific reactions in specific substances. the enzyme invertase causes the inversion of sucrose.

Equilibrium Relative Humidity: See ERH.

ERH: An expression of water activity.ERH os the relative humidity that would be necessary for a substance to neither gain moisture from nor lose moisture to the surroundng environment.

Eutectic: A combination of fats that results in a product with a lower melting point than would be predicted by the solid fat index(SFI).

Fat Bloom: Chocolate due to improper crystallization of cocoa butter. Fat Bloom is cause mainly by improper tempering or storage of chocolate.

Fat Migration: The movement of incompatible fats to create equilibrium.

Fat System: A system of solid particles within fat. Chocolate and nut pastes are example of a fat system.

Fat-In-Water Emulsion: An emulsion in which the fat phase is dispersed in the continuous aqueous phase.

Fatty Acid: The long chains attached to the glycerol backbone making up triglycerides(fats).

Fermentation: the breakdown of sugars and other substances by yeast and bacteria.

Fondant: Sugar, water, and glucose syrup that is supersaturated and agitated  to induce crystallization.

Foot: A large flat spot on the bottom of chocolate dipped confections due to excessive accumulation of chocolate around the base.

Forastero: The most prominent commercial variety of cacao grown.

Force-Setting: Causing a substance to set by exposing it to cooler than usual temperatures.

Form-V: The stable form of cocoa butter crystal that can produced during tempering.

Fractionated Fat: Fat that has been chilled in order to isolate certain narrow melting ranges.

Frappe: An aerator added to some types of confectionery, including fudge and salt water taffy.

Free Water: Water that is not chemically bound to another substance.

Fructose: A monosaccharide that together with dextrose makes up sucrose. Fructose is sweeter than sucrose.

Fudge: A crystalline confection similar to fondant, but containing fats dairy products and flavoring.

Ganache: A mixture of chocolate with a water containing ingredient usually cream.


Gelatin: A hydrocolloid