General Baking

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Almond Paste: A mixture of ground blanched almonds, sugar, and liquid glucose or corn syrup.

Amaretto: An almond flavored liqueur originally from the Italian town of Saronno.

Asiago Cheese: Traditionally a sheep’s milk cheese from the foothills of the Italian dolomites, but now commonly a pleasently sharp cows ilk cheese that is available young or aged.

Baking: The cooking of food in dry heat of an oven.

Batard: A large french white bread with a dark crust and an oblong shape.

Batter: A smooth mixture that is thin enough to pour or spoon. Most batters consist of flour, eggs, and a liquid such as milk

Beat: To mix vigorously until a single ingredient, such as eggs, or a mixture, such as a cake batter, is smooth, well blended, and aerated.

Blanched Almonds: Almonds that had their skins removed.

Bundt Pan: A style of cake pan with a fluted sides, a rounded bottom, and a central tube.

Butter Cream: A light, fluffy mixture of butter, sugar, and eggs or custard used as a cake frosting or a filling. It can be flavored in myriad ways, including coffee, chocolate, and citrus.

Caramelize: To heat sugar until it melts and changes to a light to dark brown color, or to cook other foods until their natural sugars caramelize, developing more complex flavors.

Chantilly Cream: Sweetened and sometimes flavored whipped cream.

Chocolate Jimmies: Tiny, cylinder-shaped candies used to decorate sweets such as cupcakes and ice cream.

Clotted Cream: A specialty of Devonshire, England, this extra rich cream is traditionally made by gently heating milk until a crust develops on the surface and the liquid beneath it thickens. High in milk fat, it is an english teatime staple, topping bread or scones.

Coccodrillo: Italian for “crocodile”; this is the name used for an oblong yeast bread with a rough surface.

Coconut Milk: Made by soaking grated coconut in water, coconut milk has a rich, nutty flavor.

Cointreau: A french Orange flavored liqueur.

Core: To remove the central core, or seeds and stem, of a fruit or vegetable.

Corn Syrup: glucose syrup made from corn starch, it is used to add sweetness moisture, and chewiness to baked items.

Coulis: A thick, sieved puree made from raw or cooked fruit and served as a sauce.

Cream Cheese: A mild, tangy fresh cheese, made from cows milk which is high in fat.

Cream of Tartar: A powdery, white substance, technically known as potassium tartrate, used as a stabilizer, and promotes volume in egg whites: in cake, creates a finer crumb, and enhances creaminess in frostings.

Crimp: To seal a pastry dough using a knife, fork or specialized crimping tool. Fluting is to seal pastry dough, using one’s fingers instead of a tool.

Crystallized Flowers: Edible flowers that are coated with a sugar syrup. also referred to as candied and iced flowers.

Crystallized Ginger: Ginger that has been preserved in sugar syrup and then dusted with sugar.

Curd: A flavored concoction made by cooking together citrus juice, egg yolks, sugar and butter until thick and creamy.

Curdling: When the many parts of an ingredient, or mixture seperate, whether from sitting to long, mixing together to fast or slow, it’s normally dependent on what is being mixed together and its mixing conditions.

Detrempe: The dough which is rapped around a block of butter in order to create puff pastry.

Disk: Dough-usually pie or cookie dough-shaped in to a thick, flattened round.

Dust: the act of sprinkling a powdery ingredient on to a work surface, normally confectioners sugar, flour, or cocoa powder.

Edible Golden Leaf: A fragile but spectacular garnish.

Espresso Powder, Instant: Made from coffee beans, an extremely fine powder dissolves in hot water.

Fermentation: A chemical change that occurs when yeast and bacteria are permitted to multiply in food, which creates carbon dioxide and alcohol by breaking down all large sugars and/or starch chains into smaller molecules and creating carbone dioxide and alcohol in the process.

Filo Dough: Large paper thin sheets of dough, which make up the majority of middle eastern pastries

Fougasse: A decorative flat bread popular in the Provence region of France.

Framboise: A Raspberry flavored French brandy.

Frosting: A thick, fluffy mixture, such as buttercream, used to coat the outside of a cake.

Galette: A round, flat French tart or cake usually made from flaky-pastry or puff pastry and holding a sweet or savory filling.

Ganache: A smooth mixture of chocolate and cream or butter.

Glaze: Thinner than either a frosting or icing, a glaze is poured, drizzled, or brushed on cakes, tarts, and pastries

Gluten: the web like structure that forms in a dough due to the protein present in wheat flours and in very small amounts in rye and oat flours.

Goat Cheese: Cheese made from pure goats milk or a blend of goats and cow’s milk.

Grande Marnier: Considered the gold standard for orange liqueurs available, from France.

Grappa: A potent italian brandy which is made from the remains of grape wine pressings.

Gruyere Cheese: A smooth, creamy cow’s milk cheese produced in Switzerland and France and appreciated for its mild, nutty flavor.

Half Sheet Pan: Also known as a baking sheet, a baking pan which measures 12 by 17 inches and has a 1 inch sides, which is half the size of a commercial sheet pan.

Hull: To remove the dry outer covering of a fruit, seed or nut. Also to remove the leafy base where the stem connects to a fruit.

Icing: Used to coat and/or fill a cake.

Kahlua: A popular and distinctive mexican liqueur flavored with herbs and vanilla.

Kirsch: A cherry flavored colorless brandy, made in Germany, France, and Switzerland.

Knead: To fold and press dough to develop its gluten structure whether bread or other baked items.

Lavender Flowers, Dried: The Flower of the Lavender herb, which when fresh are purple in color, and more of a grayish color when dried.

Levain: A natural sourdough starter that begins as a chef, a mixture of flour water(or other liquid). which is left to ferment for a few days. Then flour is added to the sourdough and it becomes levain.

Macerate: To soak food, usually fruit in sugar and/or a flavorful liquid, such as liqueur.

Malt Syrup: A thick syrup made from maltose sugar extract from sprouted barley.

Mandoline: A flat, rectangular tool used for slicing foods quickly and with precision and uniformity.

Mascarpone Cheese: A soft, rich, smooth fresh Italian cheese made from cream, with a texture reminiscent of sour cream.

Meringue: Sweet, white, and fluffy, this delicate mixture is produced by beating together egg white and sugar.

Microplane: The brand name for a line of graters, including a narrow model, 12-inches long, ideal for citrus zest.

Morello Cherry: A dark red, sort(tart) cherry sold in jarred or canned, packed in syrup.

Mousse: An airy, rich concoction of sweet or savory ingredients. It may be a suspension of fruit in whipped cream served as an elegant dessert, or softly whipped cream folded into melted chocolate for using as a cake filling.

Nutmeg: The brown, oblong seed of a tropical evergreen tree, a whole nutmeg resembles an unshelled pecan.

Pastry: A term used to refer to various doughs such as puff pastry and pie pastry: individual pastry creations, such as napoleons, eclairs and an entire category of baked items, including everything from Baklava to choux to croissants.

Pastry Cream: A basic custard with many applications in dessert making.

Pie Pans And Dishes: Metal pie pans, Glass Or Ceramic Pie Dishes, are standard in 9 and 10 inchs.

Pine Nuts: Seeds of a specific pine tree, which nestle in scales of the cones.

Pipe: To make decorative effects on cakes and other baked items by forcing a frosting, whipped cream or similar mixture through a piping bag.

Poach: To cook foods gently in not-quite-simmering water or other liquid.

Polenta: Refers to both the milled grain, italian cornmeal, and the cooked dish made from the grain.

Proofing: Refers to the rising period of a yeast dough after it has been shape.

Punch Down: To press down a yeast dough after it has finished its first rise.

Prosciutto Di Parma: An Italian Ham that is seasoned, self-cured and air-dried.

Puree: To reduce food to a smooth, thick consistency by blending, mashing, or pushing it through a sieve or similar tool.

Quick Breads: Breads that rise through the action of baking powder, and/or baking soda.

Ricotta Cheese: A whey based Italian cheese made by heating the left over whey left over from making other Italian cheeses.

Rise: To increase the volume of a yeast based batter or dough.

Roll Out: To flatten dough by using a rolling pin.

Sabayon: A custard based sauce flavored with wine:

Sift: To pass dry ingredients through a sifter.

Slash: Using a sharp knife or similar tool, to make one or more shallow cuts in loaf bread before baking.

Sourdough: A yeast bread with a tangy flavor.

Sponge: A portion of dough that is prepared ahead of time and allowed to ferment as well develope flavor.

Springform Pan: A deep round cake pan with sides secure by a clip.

Starter: Yeast and sourdough starters are used to leaven yeast breads.

Streusel: crumbly mixture of flour, butter, and sugar, and used on a variety of baked items.

Sweet Marsala: A fortified dessert wine from Italy.

Tube Pan: Any cake pan with a central tube.

Wheat Bran: The outer layer of the wheat kernel that is removed during milling.

Yeast Bread: Breads that are leavened with yeast.

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